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Aditya L1

Recently, the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) confirmed the successful placement of the Aditya L1 satellite into its final orbit on January 6, 2024. The space agency shared the milestone through a social media post, revealing that Aditya L1 has effectively entered the Halo orbit around the L1 point.

Regarded as a highly challenging task, the precision placement of the satellite in the Halo orbit at the Lagrangian point was meticulously executed by ISRO. The Ground Command Centre, situated approximately 1.5 million km away, played a crucial role as ISRO utilized the motor and thrusters for this intricate maneuver.

The propulsion system of the Aditya L1 spacecraft, comprising a 440 Newton Liquid Apogee Motor, eight 22 Newton thrusters, and four 10 Newton thrusters, was skillfully employed in a series of intermittent firings to guide the spacecraft to the L1 point.

Prime Minister Narendra Modi commended ISRO’s success, expressing confidence in India’s commitment to exploring new frontiers of science. Dr. Jitendra Singh, the Union Minister of State for Science and Technology, hailed the accomplishment as a proud moment for the country under the visionary leadership of Prime Minister Narendra Modi.

Aditya L1 marks India’s inaugural solar mission, designed to observe and study the Sun’s Corona, unraveling the mysteries of its extreme heat and its impact on Earth. The Lagrangian Point, or L1, represents the equilibrium point where gravitational forces between the Earth and the Sun allow uninterrupted observation of the Sun without the interference of eclipses.

Following its launch from Sriharikota, Aditya L1 underwent four Earth-bound maneuvers and a Trans Lagrangian Point Insertion maneuver to reach its final orbit. The successful positioning of Aditya L1 in its designated orbit signifies a significant stride in India’s scientific exploration, specifically in understanding the Sun-Earth connection.

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India’s first solar mission, Aditya-L1, is scheduled to reach its destination, the Lagrangian point (L1), located 1.5 million km from Earth, on January 6, according to the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO). The mission, launched on September 2, aims to study the Sun from a unique orbit.

Destination Day: ISRO chairman S Somanath announced that Aditya-L1 is expected to reach the Lagrangian point on January 6.

Mission Background: Launched from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre on September 2, Aditya-L1 is India’s first space-based observatory designed to study the Sun.

Technical Maneuver: Once at the Lagrangian point, the spacecraft will require an engine firing to ensure it stays in its designated orbit and does not drift further.

Five-Year Mission: Aditya-L1, upon reaching its destination, will observe and measure various solar events for the next five years.

Global Impact: The data collected by Aditya-L1 will not only benefit India but also contribute valuable insights to understanding the dynamics of the Sun and its impact on life worldwide.

ISRO’s Vision: ISRO chief S Somanath emphasized the importance of India’s technological advancement and shared plans to build an Indian space station called ‘Bharatiya space station,’ aligning with Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s directives.

Economic Growth: Acknowledging the changing landscape of the space sector, Somanath highlighted ISRO’s commitment to supporting and encouraging new actors, fostering economic growth around the new generation in the space industry.

As Aditya-L1 reaches this significant milestone, it marks a step forward in India’s space exploration journey, contributing valuable solar data for scientific understanding and technological growth.

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The Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) has fruitfully captured the first high-energy X-ray glimpse of solar flares using the High Energy L1 Orbiting X-ray Spectrometer (HEL1OS) instrument on board the Aditya-L1 spacecraft.

HEL1OS is a devoted Indian space mission for the study of the Sun from an orbit around the L1 Lagrange point, which is about 1.5 million kilometers from Earth. The instrument was developed by the Space Astronomy Group of the U R Rao Satellite Centre (URSC) in Bengaluru, India.

The first observation period for HEL1OS began on October 29, 2023. During this time, the instrument was able to record the spontaneous phase of solar flares. Solar flares are sudden brightening’s of the Sun’s atmosphere that produce greater emission across the entire electromagnetic spectrum.

HEL1OS is distinctively designed to study the impulsive hard X-ray emission from solar flares. This emission is very difficult to portray and understand because it is highly time variable and has multiple spectral components. HEL1OS overcomes these difficulties by having a set of detectors that are specifically tuned to different energy ranges and provide very high spectral and time resolution measurements.

“Commissioned on October 27, 2023, HEL1OS is currently undergoing fine-tuning of thresholds and calibration operations. The instrument is set to monitor the Sun’s high-energy X-ray activity with fast timing and high-resolution spectra,” ISRO stated in a release.

The HEL1OS data will enable researchers to study explosive energy release and electron acceleration during the impulsive phases of solar flares. This information will help us to better understand the Sun’s corona, which is the outermost layer of the Sun’s atmosphere.

Aditya-L1 spacecraft

The Aditya-L1 spacecraft is designed to provide remote observations of the solar corona and in-situ observations of the solar wind at L1. The spacecraft carries seven payloads to observe the photosphere, chromosphere, and the outermost layers of the Sun, the corona, in different wavebands.

Aditya-L1 is a fully indigenous effort with the participation of national institutions.

Significance of the mission

The Aditya-L1 mission is a significant step forward for India’s space program. It is the first dedicated Indian space mission for the study of the Sun and will provide valuable data that will help us to better understand our nearest star.

The mission is also important for the development of India’s space technology. The Aditya-L1 spacecraft is a sophisticated spacecraft that incorporates a number of new technologies. The successful development and launch of the spacecraft is a testament to the capabilities of the Indian space industry.


The successful capture of the first high-energy X-ray glimpse of solar flares by HEL1OS is a significant achievement for the Aditya-L1 mission. The data from HEL1OS will help us to better understand the Sun and its corona. The Aditya-L1 mission is a valuable property for India’s space program and will contribute to the advancement of our knowledge of the Sun.

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Sriharikota, India – September 2, 2023

In a historic milestone for Indian space exploration, the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) successfully launched its first-ever solar observatory mission, Aditya-L1, today from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre in Sriharikota, Andhra Pradesh. The mission aims to provide invaluable insights into the Sun’s behavior and its impact on Earth.

Key Highlights of the Aditya-L1 Mission:

Aditya-L1, which means “the Sun” in Sanskrit, is India’s pioneering space-based observatory designed to study the outer atmosphere of our closest star, the Sun. The spacecraft will be placed in a halo orbit around the Lagrange point 1 (L1) of the Sun-Earth system, located approximately 1.5 million kilometers from Earth. This strategic positioning will enable Aditya-L1 to provide a continuous and unobstructed view of the Sun, offering real-time data on solar activities and their effects on our planet and other celestial bodies.

Scientific Objectives of the Aditya-L1 Mission:

Solar Atmospheric Dynamics: The mission aims to study the dynamics of the solar upper atmosphere, specifically the chromosphere and corona, shedding light on their behavior and fluctuations.

Heating Mechanisms: Aditya-L1 will investigate the mechanisms behind the heating of the chromosphere and corona, the physics of partially ionized plasma, and the initiation of coronal mass ejections and solar flares.

In-situ Particle and Plasma Environment: The mission will provide crucial data on particle dynamics originating from the Sun, enhancing our understanding of the solar wind and its composition.

Corona Diagnostics: Aditya-L1 will measure the temperature, velocity, and density of the coronal plasma and loops, unraveling the mysteries of the Sun’s outermost layer.

Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs): The mission will delve into the development, dynamics, and origin of coronal mass ejections, critical for space weather predictions.

Magnetic Field Studies: Aditya-L1 will explore the magnetic field topology and measurements in the solar corona, contributing to our knowledge of solar magnetism.

Space Weather Drivers: The mission will identify the origins, compositions, and dynamics of solar wind, a key driver of space weather that can impact satellite communications, navigation systems, and power grids on Earth.

A Pioneering Launch:

Aditya-L1’s launch is distinct from typical PSLV missions, as it is expected to separate from the rocket 63 minutes after liftoff, making it one of the longest PSLV missions to date. Unlike previous missions, which involved multiple satellites and orbits, Aditya-L1’s focus is solely on studying the Sun and its surrounding environment.

A Vision for the Future:

With Aditya-L1, India joins a select group of nations actively engaged in solar research, reaffirming its commitment to advancing space exploration and understanding our cosmic neighborhood. The successful launch of this mission demonstrates India’s capabilities in space science and technology and marks a significant step toward harnessing space for the benefit of all.

Aditya-L1 promises to unravel the mysteries of our Sun and provide vital information for space weather forecasting, which has profound implications for Earth’s technological infrastructure and space exploration endeavors. India’s foray into solar research is a testament to its dedication to scientific progress and its vision for a space-faring future.

As Aditya-L1 embarks on its 125-day voyage to the Sun, the world eagerly awaits the groundbreaking discoveries and insights it will bring to humanity’s understanding of our solar system’s central star.

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The highly- estimated Aditya L1 spacecraft is scheduled for liftoff at 11:50 am on September 2 from Sriharikota in Andhra Pradesh, India. This cutting-edge mission, launching from Sriharikota in Andhra Pradesh, will embark on a remarkable odyssey, positioning itself an astonishing 1.5 million kilometers away from Earth. There, it will gracefully enter a halo orbit around Lagrange Point 1 (L1), a stable celestial location nestled within the Sun-Earth system.

The overarching objective of the Aditya L1 mission is nothing short of revolutionary: to meticulously scrutinize our nearest star, the Sun. Its focus will be on the Sun’s three distinct layers – the photosphere, chromosphere, and the outermost region, the corona. To accomplish this ambitious feat, the spacecraft is equipped with an array of sophisticated instruments, including electromagnetic detectors, particle sensors, and magnetic field analyzers. These advanced tools promise to unveil unprecedented insights into the Sun’s intricate behavior.

Stay tuned for comprehensive updates and captivating facts about the Aditya L1 Mission as it gracefully unfolds its mission. This ambitious endeavor holds the key to unraveling the Sun’s enduring mysteries, and we are committed to keeping you well-informed every step of the way.

As we draw nearer to the launch of India’s Aditya-L1 solar mission, the significance of this endeavor cannot be overstated. Professor Ramesh R from the esteemed Indian Institute of Astrophysics underscores its importance. He elucidates the potential impact of Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) emanating from the Sun on satellites orbiting Earth. Professor Ramesh emphasizes the critical nature of comprehending the ever-changing solar atmosphere and its magnetic field variations for accurately predicting solar flares. Typically, we observe two to three CMEs daily, a number that can surge dramatically to 11 to 12 during periods of heightened sunspot activity.

The primary scientific objectives of the Aditya-L1 mission are nothing short of audacious and illuminating. This mission seeks to unravel the enigmas of the Sun’s uppermost layers, encompassing the chromosphere and the corona. It will delve deeply into processes like heating, coronal mass ejections, and solar flares. Moreover, the mission will closely scrutinize the in-situ particle and plasma environments to attain a profound comprehension of solar particle dynamics.

Aditya-L1 will embark on a voyage into the intricacies of the solar corona and its heating mechanisms. It will employ diagnostic instruments to measure parameters such as plasma temperature, velocity, and density. This scientific venture will scrutinize the development, dynamics, and origins of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) while elucidating the sequence of events that culminate in solar eruptive phenomena. Furthermore, the mission will chart the magnetic field topology within the solar corona, contributing invaluable insights into the drivers of space weather, including the origin, composition, and dynamics of the solar wind.

The Aditya-L1 mission is furnished with seven scientific payloads, each meticulously crafted to scrutinize diverse aspects of the Sun. These payloads encompass a diverse spectrum of instruments, from electromagnetic detectors to particle sensors and magnetic field analysers. Collectively, these tools will empower scientists to conduct in-depth research into the mechanisms governing the heating of the solar corona, the acceleration of solar wind, and the properties of the Sun’s magnetic field.

One of the strategic advantages of the Aditya-L1 mission is its chosen location at Lagrange Point 1 (L1), situated approximately 1.5 million kilometers from Earth within Earth’s orbit. This strategic positioning between Earth and the Sun offers a stable vantage point for uninterrupted and continuous observations of the Sun. This unique position renders it an ideal observatory for real-time studies of solar activities, such as solar flares and coronal mass ejections.

The Aditya-L1 mission, on the brink of its launch, is poised to embark on a 125-day journey to reach Lagrange Point 1 (L1). For those eager to witness this momentous event, ISRO has thoughtfully provided an official registration link at lvg.shar.gov.in. Visitors will have the exclusive opportunity to observe the launch from the Launch View Gallery at Sriharikota and explore the Space Museum, an exhibition showcasing India’s illustrious history in space programs and its visionary plans for future space exploration.

In terms of scientific instruments, the Aditya L-1 mission boasts seven payloads, each meticulously designed to fulfill specific research objectives. These payloads include SoLEXS and HEL10S, tasked with analysing X-ray flares, SUIT, responsible for imaging the solar photosphere and chromosphere, MAG, equipped to measure magnetic fields, ASPEX and PAPA, dedicated to the study of solar wind and energetic ions, and VELC, designed to observe the solar corona and dynamics associated with coronal mass ejections. These payloads are the result of collaborative efforts between various esteemed Indian research and space institutions and ISRO.

The Aditya-L1 mission marks a monumental milestone in India’s pursuit of space exploration, promising to significantly enhance our understanding of the Sun and its profound impact on Earth and space weather.

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